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Proto:Where in Time is Carmen Sandiego? (1997)/Chronopedia Entries

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This is a sub-page of Proto:Where in Time is Carmen Sandiego? (1997).

Though the dialogue is largely the same between the demo and final versions of this game, the text underwent some additional editing. The most significant changes are to the Chronopedia, the entirety of which is present in draft form in the demo despite the fact that there's only one case.

The changes from the demo to the final provide some insight into the editing and fact-checking processes during devleopment. It's not terribly interesting insight—in fact, it's really, really boring. But it's insight!

The formatting of these documents has been adjusted for ease of comparison. The original text relies on automatic word wrapping instead of manual line breaks, and the paragraph spacing is irregular to accommodate the size of an in-game page. Here, the text has been hard wrapped at 80 characters and has line breaks added where necessary to ensure that corresponding sections will align horizontally when displayed at full width.

Case 1: Egypt, 1490 BCE

Demo Final
THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS

"She shall exercise the excellent kingship in the whole land."

-- From hieroglyphs inscribed in Hatshepsut's temple
 

 "She directed the affairs of the whole land according to her wishes."

    --From one of Hatshepsut's couriers

Quote changed. The heading was removed because the chapter titles are actually displayed as graphics. This change also occurs in most other cases.

Demo Final
EGYPTIAN ACCOMPLISHMENTS

One of the world's great civilizations arose in Egypt around 5000 years ago.
The ancient Egyptians invented the first book, some of the first statues, and
one of the first systems of writing. They were also the first ancient people to
use a written calendar based on the movements of the sun.

The Egyptians made many scientific discoveries. They studied the internal organs
of the human body and operated on people who were ill. The Egyptians were
skilled craftsmen who knew how to work leather and make fine jewelry. They
erected complex buildings made from gigantic stone blocks brought from quarries
hundreds of miles away.





FUN FACT: The Egyptian pyramids are among the oldest monuments still standing
built by human hands. Some of these pyramids have been standing for 4500 years.

EGYPTIAN ACCOMPLISHMENTS
 
One of the world's great civilizations arose in Egypt about 5000 years ago.
The ancient Egyptians invented the first book, some of the first large stone
monuments, and one of the first systems of writing. They were also the first
ancient people to use a written calendar based on the movements of the sun.

Egyptian culture was quite sophisticated. Embalming rites gave the Egyptians
basic familiarity with the internal organs of the human body. Doctors reportedly
operated on people who were ill. Egyptian tomb artifacts, stored in museums
around the world, speak silently of craftsmen who created fine leather products
and fabulous jewelry.

Perhaps most impressive are the architectural accomplishments of ancient
Egypt--featuring complex temples and pyramids made with gigantic stone blocks
brought from quarries hundreds of miles away.

FUN FACT: The Egyptian pyramids are among the oldest monuments still standing
today. Some of these pyramids have graced Egyptian skylines for over 4500
years.

This section was overhauled for increased accuracy and clarity. An extra paragraph discussing Egyptian architecture was also added.

Demo Final
THE NEW KINGDOM
 
The period between 1570-1085 B.C.E. was the time of Egypt's greatest power.
During this era of expansion, called the New Kingdom, Egyptian pharaohs
conquered Nubia, part of Syria, and Palestine. Huge temples were constructed at
Karnak and Luxor, and the first tombs were built in the Valley of the Kings.

During the New Kingdom, Thebes became one of Egypt's most important cities. The
title "pharaoh" means "Great House." This term had previously referred to the
palace of the king, but during the New Kingdom, it came to refer to the king
himself. The Egyptians considered the pharaohs the sons of gods, and their
statues were placed in the temples alongside those of the gods.

FUN FACT: When the pharaoh's army reached the upper Euphrates River, it rained.
The soldiers who had never seen rain in Egypt called it "the Nile falling from
the sky."
THE NEW KINGDOM
 
The period between 1539--1075 B.C.E. was the time of Egypt's greatest power.
During this era of expansion, called the New Kingdom, Egyptian pharaohs
conquered Nubia, part of Syria, and Palestine. Huge temples were constructed at
Karnak and Luxor, and the first tombs were built in the Valley of the Kings.

The title "pharaoh" means "Great House"--originally referring to the palace of
the king. But during the New Kingdom, the term "pharaoh" came to refer to the
king himself. The Egyptians believed their pharaohs were the sons of gods. The
statues of a pharaoh were, therefore, considered symbols of particular gods,
such as Amon or Osiris.

FUN FACT: Rain was an uncommon event in the Egyptian lands of the upper
Euphrates River. One ancient source describes how Egyptian soldiers,
encountering rain for the first time, called it "the Nile falling from the sky."

The hyphen in "1570-1085" was incorrectly changed to a dash for some reason. The pharaohs' status as gods was made clearer.

Demo Final
BEARDED BEAUTY
 
Queen Hatshepsut was among the first great female leaders in recorded history
and a powerful monarch of the New Kingdom. When her husband Thutmose II died and
was mummified, Hatshepsut reigned alongside her stepson who was too young to
rule. Apparently she liked being pharaoh and decided to keep the throne. The
most important event of her reign was a trading expedition to Punt in Africa
which brought ivory, incense, monkeys, and a panther back to Egypt.

After her stepson, Thutmose III, finally ascended the throne, he had
Hatshepsut's name removed from buildings and public records. Apparently, he was
unhappy that he had been denied the throne for so long!


FUN FACT: The statues and paintings of Hatshepsut show her wearing a false
beard. This helped her look like a "son" of the gods.

QUEEN HATSHEPSUT
 
Queen Hatshepsut was among the first great female leaders in recorded history
and a powerful monarch of the New Kingdom. When her husband Thutmose II died and
was mummified, Hatshepsut reigned alongside her stepson, Thutmose III, who was
too young to rule. Apparently she liked being pharaoh and decided to keep the
throne. The most important event of her reign was a trading expedition to Punt
in Africa which brought ivory, incense, monkeys, and a panther back to Egypt.

After Thutmose III finally ascended the throne, he had Hatshepsut's name removed
from buildings and public records. Although his motivations are uncertain, it is
possible that Thutmose III was unhappy about being denied the throne for many
years by his stepmother.

FUN FACT: Surviving statues and paintings of Hatshepsut indicate that she wore
the formal garments of royalty after gaining the throne. She even wore a false
beard--a traditional symbol of the pharaoh.

The dubious "bearded beauty" moniker was changed to Hatshepsut's actual name. Apparently Thutmose III's motivations were less certain than the author initially thought.

Demo Final
EGYPTIAN GODS
 
Religion was extremely important in ancient Egypt, and Egyptian priests had
great political power. Temples housed many statues of the gods. At religious
festivals, priests carried the statues outside where the people could pray to
them.



The god Osiris ruled the underworld, and he judged the souls of the dead. The
goddess Hathor, who looked after women and children, was often shown with a
cow's head. Of all the gods, the life-giving sun god was the most important. Re
means "sun." He was sometimes called Re.

FUN FACT: During the Middle Kingdom, the sun god became known as Amun-Re, king
of the gods.


EGYPTIAN GODS
 
Religion was extremely important in ancient Egypt, and Egyptian priests had
great political power. Priests controlled the many Egyptian temples--each temple
dedicated to one or two particular gods. Funerary temples, places of worship for
deceased pharaohs, were important religious centers. A particularly beautiful
funerary temple, that of Queen Hatshepsut, was built around 1470 B.C.E. and has
been partially restored today.

The Egyptian gods played an essential role in the beliefs of the people. The god
Osiris ruled the underworld, and he judged the souls of the dead. The goddess
Hathor, who looked after women and children, was often shown with a cow's head.
Re, also known as Ra, was the god of the sun and the creator god.

FUN FACT: During the Middle Kingdom, the sun god became known as Amun-Re, king
of the gods.

(map on next page)

The role of priests was expounded upon and wording was tightened. An indicator for the map on the next page was also added, a change which occurred in most other cases.

Case 2

HISTORY TEXT FOR CASE 2
Section 1 Heading


Section 1 Body.


Section 2 Heading


Section 2 Body.


Section 3 Heading


Section 3 Body.


Section 4 Heading


Section 4 Body.

Case 2 was never completed, so naturally it has the same placeholder as in the final game.

Case 3: Rome, 50 BCE

Demo Final
THE ROMAN EMPIRE

"Caesar has fought very successfully against the fiercest of peoples in great
battles and made them part of the Roman state."

Cicero, great orator and writer of ancient Rome, in a speech to the Roman senate

 

"Caesar has fought very successfully against the fiercest of peoples in great
battles and made them part of the Roman state."

    --Cicero, great orator and writer of ancient Rome, in a speech to the Roman
    Senate

Formatting of quote attributions was made uniform for the final (five spaces and two hyphens). Also, capital S in "Roman Senate".

Demo Final
THE EXPANSION OF ROME

About 1000 B.C.E, Rome consisted of a few villages along the Tiber River.
However, by 272 B.C.E., the city-state of Rome had grown in size and power until
it controlled the entire Italian peninsula.


During the next century, Rome clashed with the trading empire of Carthage, and
the two powers fought a number of battles known as the Punic Wars. When Carthage
was defeated in 146 B.C.E., Rome emerged as the greatest power in the
Mediterranean. At its height, the Roman Empire stretched from the British Isles
to Egypt. Key to Rome's success was its well-armed, well-disciplined, and
well-trained army.

FUN FACT: The emblem of an eagle, symbol of the Roman Empire, was carried on a
pole by a standard bearer who led the Roman army into battle.
THE EXPANSION OF ROME

Around 1000 B.C.E., Rome was a small and simple village along the Tiber
River, in what is today western Italy. However, by 272 B.C.E., the city-state of
Rome had grown in size and power until it controlled the entire Italian
peninsula.

Throughout the next century, Rome clashed with the trading empire of Carthage,
and the two powers fought a number of battles known as the Punic Wars. When
Carthage was defeated in 146 B.C.E., Rome emerged as the greatest power in the
Mediterranean. At its height, the Roman Empire stretched from the British Isles
to Egypt. Key to Rome's success was its well-armed, well-disciplined, and
well-trained army.

FUN FACT: The eagle emblem, a symbol of the Roman Empire, was carried on a pole
by a standard bearer who led the Roman army into battle.

The final demotes early Rome from "a few villages" to "a village", and the eagle emblem to "a symbol" rather than the only symbol of Rome.

Demo Final
FROM REPUBLIC TO EMPIRE

From 509 B.C.E until the time of Julius Caesar, Rome was a republic governed
by an elected Senate and two consuls or leaders. Following a period of strife
and disorder, In 49 B.C.E., Julius Caesar seized control of Rome and restored
law and order. Caesar was a great leader who built many public buildings and
reformed the calendar.


Caesar had many enemies. When it was rumored that he would make himself king, a
group of angry senators assassinated him on March 15, 44 B.C.E. After a bitter
struggle, Augustus, the grandnephew of Caesar became Emperor.



FUN FACT: After Julius Caesar's death, "Caesar" became a title that meant
emperor or ruler. All the leaders of Rome adopted this title.
FROM REPUBLIC TO EMPIRE

From 509 B.C.E. until the time of Julius Caesar, Rome was a republic governed
by a Senate and two consuls or leaders. Following a turbulent period of strife
and disorder, during which many political and military leaders vied for power,
Julius Caesar seized control of Rome in 49 B.C.E.. Caesar was a powerful
military figure and popular leader who built many public buildings and reformed
the calendar.

Although Caesar was popular with the general public, he had many political
enemies. When it was rumored that he would declare himself emperor, a group
including men of the Roman Senate assassinated him on March 15, 44 B.C.E.. A
bitter new power struggle followed, and eventually Octavian, the son and heir of
Caesar, became emperor.

FUN FACT: After Julius Caesar's death, "Caesar" became a title that meant
emperor or ruler. All the leaders of Rome adopted this title.

Mentions of Caesar's popular appeal were added. The earlier text mistakenly identifies Octavian by "Augustus", the title he took after becoming emperor.

Demo Final
FROM THE GREEKS

The Romans admired the Greeks and were inspired by their art, literature, and
culture. The Romans borrowed Greek architectural styles, such as Doric, Ionic,
and Corinthian columns, and adapted the Greek alphabet to Latin. They borrowed
Greek myths, and combined the Greek gods with their own.


The Roman Empire was destroyed in 476 C.E., but Roman culture never completely
disappeared. Over time, the Roman language, Latin, was transformed into Italian,
French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Romanian. The Romans were skilled engineers who
built bridges, aqueducts, and roads, and passed this knowledge on to the rest of
the world. Some of these early Roman bridges and roads are still in use today.


FUN FACT: The ancient Romans worshipped many gods. However, in 312 C.E.,
Christianity became Rome's official state religion.
FROM THE GREEKS

Roman culture was greatly influenced by the art, literature, and culture of
their predecessors--the Greeks. The Romans borrowed Greek architectural styles,
such as Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian columns, and learned to speak and write in
Greek. The Romans also borrowed Greek myths, and combined the Greek gods with
their own.

The Roman Empire was attacked by barbarians in the 400s C.E., and the last Roman
emperor was deposed in 476 C.E.--marking the end of Rome as a major power.

But Roman culture, particularly in the Byzantine Empire, continued to influence
the world. Over time, the Roman language--Latin--evolved into Italian, French,
Spanish, Portuguese, and Romanian.

FUN FACT: Skillful Roman engineering also left a lasting mark on Europe. Many of
the bridges, aqueducts, and roads built by the Romans are still in use today.

Misinformation about the relationship between Greek and Latin was removed, and a few details added about the Roman Empire's fall. The fun fact was changed entirely.

Demo Final
SPORTS AND ENTERTAINMENT

In ancient Rome, people often gathered in public bathing houses. The
bathhouses were beautiful buildings, decorated with colored marble and works of
art. The Romans liked to play ball games and board games in the yards near the
baths. They bought snacks and drinks from peddlers, or gossiped with their
friends while soaking in the water.

Romans also liked to attend chariot races or watch gladiators fight to the death
in the arena. Most gladiators were slaves or criminals who were trained as
fighters. Some gladiators were able to win their freedom if they fought bravely,
but most were eventually killed.

FUN FACT: The gladiators also fought wild animals, including lions, tigers,
snakes, and elephants.
SPORTS AND ENTERTAINMENT

In ancient Rome, people often gathered in public bathing houses. The
bathhouses were beautiful buildings, decorated with colored marble and works of
art. The Romans liked to play ball games and board games in the yards near the
baths. They bought snacks and drinks from peddlers, and gossiped with their
friends while soaking in the water.

Romans also liked to attend chariot races or watch gladiators fight to the death
in the arena. Most gladiators were slaves or criminals who were trained as
fighters. Some gladiators were able to win their freedom if they fought bravely,
but most were eventually killed.

NOT SO FUN FACT: The gladiators also fought wild animals, including lions,
tigers, snakes, and elephants.

The first couple of paragraph survived almost entirely intact to the final, with only an "or" changed to "and". Given its content, the fun fact was appropriately retitled.

For whatever reason, this case didn't have a map indicator added.

Case 4: Vinland, 1002

Demo Final
THE VIKINGS REACH NORTH AMERICA
none

This case doesn't have a quote for some reason.

Demo Final
Bold Explorers 
 
The Vikings were a restless sort, and between 790 and 1100 CE they traded and
raided across four continents. From their origins in modern day Denmark, Norway
and Sweden, they migrated to Normandy, the British Isles and Iceland before Eric
the Red discovered and settled the island Greenland around 982. His son, Leif
Eriksson, continued west around the year 1000 and made another
discovery--becoming the first European to land on the shores of North America,
at a site that Leif named Vinland. The actual location at which Leif landed is
disputed by historians, but may have been near modern day Newfoundland. Later
Vikings tried to settle Vinland, but eventually abandoned the new North American
continent when relations with the native Inuits Indians turned sour. 










RAIDERS AND TRADERS
 
The Vikings, who called themselves Norsemen, were a restless sort. Between
790 and 1100 C.E. they traded, raided, and sailed across four continents. From
their origins in modern day Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, they migrated to
Normandy, the British Isles, and Iceland.

In about 982 C.E., a red-bearded Viking named Erik the Red discovered and
colonized a large, snowy island to the west of Iceland, which he named
Greenland.

Leif Eriksson, the son of Erik the Red, sailed west from Greenland around the
year 1000 and made a new discovery--North America. Leif landed at a place he
named Vinland, and became the first European to set foot on North American soil.

Leif and his crew spent the winter in Vinland, a region rich with trees and wild
grapes (or possibly blackberries). Other Vikings later tried to settle in
Vinland, but eventually they abandoned the new continent because of conflicts
with native inhabitants.

FUN FACT: In 1963, historians discovered artifacts at the northernmost tip of
Newfoundland (Canada) that may be the remains of a Viking colony.

The draft version interchanges this section with the following one, resulting in a rather nonsensical reading order.

Whoever wrote the draft text for this case apparently didn't get the memo on the proper formatting. Headings are in regular case instead of allcaps, every section is one giant block paragraph, etc.

Demo Final
Viking Ships 
 
The Vikings were master ship-builders. For raiding along coasts and rivers, 
they devised the long-ship, a sleek, menacing craft, often with carved wooden 
dragon heads at both ends and brightly painted shields along its sides. About 
100 feet long, the long-ship was powered by some 50 oars or a square woolen 
sail. For ocean-going journeys, the Vikings designed the knorr-ship, a 
shorter, sturdier vessel that could carry 15 tons of cargo--about as much 
weight as a dozen modern cars. All Viking ships were navigated with a wooden 
rudder device called a steer board, located on the ship's right hand side. Our
modern word "starboard", meaning the right-hand side of a ship, comes from the
Norse ship's "steering board." 







SKILLFUL SAILORS
 
The Vikings were skilled shipbuilders. The strength and superiority of their
ships gave them an edge in both battle and exploration.

The Viking longships were sleek and menacing craft, often with carved dragon
heads at both ends and brightly painted shields hung alongside. Long and
slender, they could move in either direction without turning around. Longships
were powered by some 50 oars or a square sail, and were light enough to sail in
shallow river waters or be carried overland.

For ocean-going journeys, the Vikings designed the knorr ship, a shorter,
sturdier vessel that could carry as much as 15 tons of cargo--about as much
weight as a dozen modern cars. The solid knorr ship stood up well in the fierce
storms of the Atlantic ocean.

FUN FACT: All Viking ships navigated with a wooden rudder called a steer board,
located on the right side of the ship. The modern English word "starboard,"
meaning the right-hand side of a ship, comes from the Norse "steer board."
Demo Final
The Gods of Valhalla: 
 
In Viking times, poets known as Skalds recited long poems, called Sagas, 
about legendary Norse kings and their warlike gods. According to the sagas, 
Wodin, the God of War, and Thor, the God of Thunder, lived with many other 
Norse gods in the mythic realm of Asgard, connected to the mortal world by the
Bifrost Bridge. From his great hall of Valhalla, Wodin and his allies fought an
endless battle with the forces of darkness led by the evil god Loki and the 
Frost Giants. Vikings believed that the Valkyries, beautiful warrior-goddesses
on winged horses, would carry their souls to Valhalla if they died in battle. 
They also thought the end of the world would come on the day of Ragnarok-the 
last battle in which all the gods and giants would be destroyed together.









THE NORSE GODS
 
In Viking times, poets recited long stories, called sagas, about legendary
Norse gods. The Norse gods lived in a mythic place called Asgard, connected to
the mortal world by a rainbow bridge. Asgard was ruled by Woden (also known as
Odin) who with his allies fought an endless battle against evil forces. Vikings
believed that those who died in battle went to a great hall called Valhalla,
carried there by beautiful warrior-goddesses called Valkyries.

Woden, chief of the Norse gods, was a powerful magician who exchanged one of his
eyes for wisdom and knowledge. Thor, god of thunder and Woden's eldest son,
wielded a mighty hammer. When Thor rode across the sky in his chariot, thunder
rumbled down below. Frey was god of peace, marriage, and fertility. And Tyr,
another of Woden's sons, was the god of vengeance and war.

FUN FACT: The Vikings wore charms shaped like Thor's hammer for protection
against evil dwarfs and giants.




This section and the next are swapped in the demo.

Demo Final
Life on a Viking Farm: 
 
The Vikings, who called themselves Norsemen, earned a reputation as fearsome
warriors--in fact, the term "Viking" is a Scandinavian word for "pirate." But 
between raids, Vikings actually spent most of their time farming. A typical 
Norse farm included a central dwelling, or Long House, built of stone, wood or
grass sod, an attached Byre-or barn-for their animals, and outbuildings like a
Bath House for saunas and a Forge for metal-working. Vikings tended cattle and
crops like corn, barley, and oats. They also raised apple and nut trees, and 
grew peas and cabbage in their gardens. Vikings ate from wooden plates and 
drank from decorated drinking horns. One of their favorite drinks, Mead, was 
made from fermented honey. 








VIKING CULTURE
 
The Vikings earned a reputation as fearsome warriors--in fact, the term
"vikingr" meant "pirate" in the early Scandinavian language. But most Vikings
were actually farmers. A typical Norse farm included a central dwelling called a
long house and a barn called a byre. Vikings raised animals for food and grew
crops like corn, barley, and oats. A favorite drink called mead was made from
fermented honey. The Vikings enjoyed lengthy feasts, during which long sagas
were recited.

Viking society consisted of three groups: the jarls, karls, and thralls. The
jarls were rich landowners, the karls were freeborn men, and the thralls were
slaves who had no rights. However, a thrall could sometimes work hard and buy
his freedom. Periodically, all the free men gathered together in meetings called
"things" to discuss problems and make group decisions.

FUN FACT: The Vikings loved games such as fencing, wrestling, and skating. In
one game, a man would jump from oar to oar while a boat was being rowed.

(map on next page)

Case 5: Japan, 1015

HISTORY TEXT FOR CASE 5

Section 1 Heading

Section 1 Body.

Section 2 Heading

Section 2 Body.

Section 3 Heading

Section 3 Body.

Section 4 Heading

Section 4 Body.

Case 5 hasn't even been started in the demo, and instead has placeholder text much like Case 2's in the final. Several other cases are in a similar state.

Case 6: Feudal England, 1086

HISTORY TEXT FOR CASE 6

Section 1 Heading

Section 1 Body.

Section 2 Heading

Section 2 Body.

Section 3 Heading

Section 3 Body.

Section 4 Heading

Section 4 Body.

Same as the above.

Case 7: China, 1271

Demo Final
CHINA: EAST MEETS WEST



 
 


"The sixth [emperor was] Kublai-khan, who became greater and more powerful
than all the others...."

    --Marco Polo, from "Travels of Marco Polo"

Heading removed, quote added.

Demo Final
The Silk Road

East met West along the famous Silk Road, which stretched 4,000 miles (6,400
km.) from China to the eastern edges of Europe. The Silk Road wasn't a typical
road, however. It was actually a long chain of trade routes where goods were
passed from merchant to merchant. In this way, individual merchants only had to
travel short distances, while their valuable goods, traded again and again,
could travel thousands of miles.


Many fascinating items were traded along the Silk Road, including exotic spices
and fine porcelain. But the most valuable item traded was the precious silk made
only in China. This soft and durable fabric was very popular in Europe, and
eventually gave the fabled caravan route its unique name--the Silk Road.

In addition to trade, the Silk Road had another important role: it put Western
and Eastern peoples in contact with one another, leading to a growing exchange
of cultural knowledge.
THE SILK ROAD

East met West along the famous Silk Road, which stretched 4,000 miles (6,400
km) from China to the eastern edges of Europe.

The Silk Road wasn't a typical road, however. It was actually a long chain of
trade routes where goods were passed from merchant to merchant. In this way,
individual merchants only had to travel short distances, while their valuable
goods, traded again and again, could travel thousands of miles.

Many fascinating items were traded along the Silk Road, including wool, spices,
and fine porcelain. But the most valuable item traded was the precious silk made
only in China. This soft and durable fabric was very popular in Europe, and
eventually gave the fabled caravan route its unique name--the Silk Road.

In addition to trade, the Silk Road had another important role -- it put Western
and Eastern peoples in contact with one another, leading to a growing exchange
of knowledge.

Some formatting changes here, although they're a bit uneven. A colon in the last paragraph was changed to a dash, but that dash has different spacing from the one in the paragraph before it. Are you asleep yet?

Demo Final
Marco Polo & the European Fascination with the East

For centuries, Europe was fascinated with fables of the Far East--a land of
gigantic tigers, exotic spices, and silk-robed rulers with odd customs--like
soaking in hot water. Since Europeans in the 13th century almost never bathed,
this was a strange custom indeed!

One of the first accurate Western accounts of China was written by an Italian
named Marco Polo, who traveled to China at the age of seventeen with his
merchant father and uncle. After many trials and delays, the Polos reached the
court of the Mongol ruler, Kublai Khan. Marco became a close friend to the Khan,
and acted as his aide in China for over seventeen years. When Marco Polo
eventually returned to Italy, he recounted his many stories of China in a book
called "Marco Polo's Travels." The book was so compelling that it caused many
other Europeans to travel to the East.


EUROPE'S EASTERN FASCINATION

For centuries, Europe was fascinated with fables of the Far East--a land of
gigantic tigers, exotic spices, and silk-robed rulers with odd customs--like
bathing in hot water. Since public bath houses were uncommon in 13th century
Europe, Europeans might have found bathing quite a strange custom!

One of the first accurate Western accounts of China was written by an Italian
named Marco Polo, who traveled to China at the age of seventeen with his
merchant father and uncle. After many delays, the Polos reached the court of the
Mongol ruler, Kublai Khan.

Marco Polo became well acquainted with the Khan, and acted as his aide in China
for more than seventeen years. When Marco Polo eventually returned to Italy, he
recounted his many stories of China in a book called "Travels of Marco Polo."
The book was so compelling that it caused many other Europeans to travel to the
East.

Rumors of dirty Europeans (may) have been greatly exaggerated.

Demo Final
The Rise and Fall of Mongol Power

The Mongols were a collection of nomadic tribes that wandered central and
northern Asia. By the 13th century these nomads had become skilled fighters and
horsemen. The Mongols became a significant force when they united under a fierce
warrior and leader named Ghengis Khan. Ghengis Khan led the united Mongol armies
across Asia, conquering and controlling almost all the land from China to
Eastern Europe by the year 1227. In 1259, Ghengis Khan's grandson, Kublai,
became ruler of the Mongol empire. Kublai Khan established a more refined reign
than his grandfather. He was a generous ruler who encouraged the growth of
culture and exposure to foreign ideas. When Kublai Khan died in 1294, the Mongol
Empire began to fall apart and soon lost its hold over China and other lands.


RISE & FALL OF THE MONGOLS

The Mongols were a collection of nomadic tribes that wandered central and
northern Asia. By the 13th century these nomads had become skilled fighters and
horsemen. The Mongols became a significant force when they united under a fierce
warrior and leader named Genghis Khan. Genghis Khan led the united Mongol armies
across Asia, conquering and controlling almost all the land from China to
Eastern Europe by the year 1227.

In 1260, Genghis Khan's grandson, Kublai, became ruler of the Mongol empire.
Kublai Khan established a more refined reign than his grandfather. He was a
generous ruler who encouraged the growth of culture and exposure to foreign
ideas. When Kublai Khan died in 1294, the Mongol Empire began to fall apart and
soon lost its hold over China and other lands.
Demo Final
Inventions of the Chinese People

When early European travelers such as Marco Polo arrived in China, they were
amazed to discover an advanced culture that had invented many unique tools and
concepts. One of these inventions was the use of fireworks. The Chinese set off
fireworks during celebrations, believing the noise scared away demons. Europeans
later adapted the black powder in these fireworks for a less festive
use--gunpowder.

During his travels, Marco Polo was amazed to discover that the Chinese burned
black stones that they dug from the earth. When ignited, these "miraculous"
black stones generated heat, and could burn far longer and hotter than firewood.
Today we call this type of black stone by another name: coal.


INVENTIONS OF THE CHINESE

When early European travelers such as Marco Polo arrived in China, they were
amazed to discover an advanced culture that had invented many unique tools and
concepts. One of these inventions was the use of fireworks. The Chinese set off
fireworks during celebrations, believing the noise scared away demons. Europeans
later adapted the black powder in these fireworks for a less festive
use--gunpowder.

FUN FACT: During his travels, Marco Polo was amazed to discover that the Chinese
dug special black stones from the earth, which when ignited burned much longer
and hotter than firewood. Today we know this "black stone" by another
name--coal.

(map on next page)

"If we call it a FUN FACT, that auomatically makes it FUN, right? Of course it does, let's add it in!"

Case 8: Mali Empire, 1324

Demo Final
THE MALI EMPIRE

"His arms stand near him being all of gold: sabre, lance,
quiver, bow and arrows."

Al-'Umari, an Egyptian chronicler describing Mansa Musa of Mali
 
 
"His arms stand near him being all of gold: sabre, lance, quiver, bow and
arrows."

    --Al-'Umari, an Egyptian chronicler describing Mansa Musa of Mali

Standard formatting changes.

Demo Final
THREE AFRICAN EMPIRES

The Ghana Empire, located in the Sudan, was the first of three great empires
in West Africa. From 800 to 1200, Ghana was an important center where Arab salt
producers from the north met to trade with gold and ivory merchants from the
south.

The Mali Empire succeeded the Ghana Empire and was the larger of the two. In the
fourteenth century, the Mali Empire covered an area the size of present day
Western Europe.

The Songhay Empire followed the Mali Empire in the fifteenth century. Its
success was due to the city of Gao which was its capital and a vital link in the
Saharan trade routes. Gao remained the center of Songhay until the Empire's
decline in the seventeenth century.

FUN FACT: In West Africa, gold was plentiful. One monarch had a hitching post
made from a forty-pound gold nugget. That would be worth about $200,000 today!

THREE AFRICAN EMPIRES
 
The Ghana Empire, located in the western Sudan, was the first of three great
trading empires in West Africa. From the eighth through thirteenth centuries,
Ghana was an important center where Arab salt producers from the north met to
trade with gold and ivory merchants from the south.

The Mali Empire succeeded the Ghana Empire and was the larger of the two. In the
fourteenth century, the Mali Empire covered an area the size of present-day
Western Europe.

The Songhai Empire followed the Mali Empire in the fifteenth century. Its
success centered around the influential trade city of Gao--a vital link in the
Saharan trade routes. Gao remained the center of Songhai until the Empire's
decline in the late sixteenth century.

FUN FACT: In West Africa, gold was plentiful. One monarch was rumored to have a
hitching post made from a forty-pound gold nugget. That would be worth about
U.S.$250,000 today!

A few minor changes in formatting and wording. Spelling of "Songhay" changed to "Songhai". The price of a 40-pound gold nugget in 1997 was apparently determined to be closer to $250,000 than $200,000 (U.S. dollars, not filthy Canadian dollars). For the curious, 40 pounds of gold would be worth approximately $761,000 as of November 2014.

Demo Final
BEST IN THE WEST

The Empire of Mali controlled the trade routes from the thirteenth to the
sixteenth century. During this period, camel caravans brought traders from the
four corners of the empire to Mali's markets.

Cities such as Timbuktu and Gao, famous for their scholarship and commerce, were
added to the empire. At Sankore University in Timbuktu, scholars studied
astronomy, mathematics, and recorded the history of West Africa for future
generations. Because it was so well-governed, Mali served as a model for later
kingdoms.

The civilization of Mali reached its peak in the fourteenth century. While
learning and commerce prospered in Mali, Europe suffered from continual civil
war and China was in decline.

FUN FACT: Ibn Batuta, a traveler, described the Mali people as honest and
law-abiding. "There is complete and general safety throughout the land," he
said.
BEST IN THE WEST
 
The Empire of Mali controlled the African trade routes from the thirteenth to
the sixteenth century. During this period, camel caravans brought traders from
the four corners of the empire into Mali's busy markets.

Well-governed and relatively peaceful, Mali gained a reputation as a place of
learning and commerce. Cities such as Timbuktu and Gao, famous for their
scholarship and commerce, were added to the empire.

At Sankore University in Timbuktu, scholars studied astronomy, mathematics, and
recorded the history of West Africa for future generations. The civilization of
Mali reached its peak in the fourteenth century, before giving way to the
Songhai Empire.


FUN FACT: Ibn Batuta, a traveler, described the Mali people as honest and
law-abiding. "There is complete and general safety throughout the land," he
said.
Demo Final
THE ROYAL TREATMENT

The kings of Mali, called "Mansas," were Muslims. In the fourteenth century,
the great leader Mansa Musa ruled the Mali Empire.



In 1324, Mansa Musa made a religious pilgrimage, or hajj, to Mecca which took
nearly two years to complete. He was accompanied by sixty thousand people, 500
slaves, and 100 camels. Each camel carried 300 pounds of gold. Mansa Musa gave
many gifts to the people he met, and the splendor of his caravan was remembered
for centuries.

Mansa Musa brought Arabic teachers and craftsmen back to Mali. As a result, West
African art, literature, and learning were enriched and revitalized.



FUN FACT: Mansa Musa made such an impression on the Arab world that until 1750,
mapmakers used his name on maps to indicate the western interior of Africa.
THE ROYAL TREATMENT
 
In the early fourteenth century, the great leader Mansa (Emperor) Musa ruled
the Mali Empire, in western Africa. Mansa, like all Mali leaders, was Muslim,
and his rule embodied a careful balance between Muslim and traditional African
beliefs.

In 1324, Mansa Musa made a religious pilgrimage, or hajj, to the Islamic holy
city Mecca--a journey of about two years. He was accompanied by sixty thousand
people, including twelve thousand slaves and a baggage train of eighty to one
hundred camels. Each camel carried 300 pounds of gold.

Mansa Musa gave many gifts to the people he met, and spent gold lavishly in
Cairo, flooding the city's gold market. The splendor of his caravan was
remembered for centuries. Mansa Musa brought Arabic teachers and craftsmen back
to Mali. As a result, West African art, literature, and learning were enriched
and revitalized.

FUN FACT: Mansa Musa made such an impression on the Arab world that until 1750,
mapmakers used his name on maps to indicate the western interior of Africa.
Demo Final
CAMEL COMMUTE

Gold and salt weren't the only items traded in West Africa. Donkey and camel
caravans arrived daily from every direction bringing slaves, honey, jewelry,
tools, leather goods, and livestock.

Camels were particularly well-suited for carrying goods across the Sahara
Desert. These long-legged animals can go without food and water for long
periods, and are able to withstand harsh conditions. They have a double row of
eyelashes and the ability to close their nostrils in a sandstorm. Unfortunately,
camels also occasionally spit, bite, kick, or refuse to move!

FUN FACT: Camels were so important for trade throughout the Sahara that they
became known as "ships of the desert."


CAMEL COMMUTE
 
Gold and salt weren't the only items traded in West Africa. Donkey and camel
caravans arrived daily from every direction bringing slaves, honey, jewelry,
tools, leather goods, and livestock.

Camels were particularly well-suited for carrying goods across the Sahara
Desert. These long-legged animals can go without food and water for long
periods, and are able to withstand harsh conditions. They have double rows of
eyelashes and the ability to close their nostrils in a sandstorm. Unfortunately,
camels also occasionally spit, bite, kick, or refuse to move!

FUN FACT: Camels were so important for trade throughout the Sahara and Arabia
that they became known as "ships of the desert."

(map on next page)

Almost no changes here. Map marker added, and trade was expanded from just the Sahara to include Arabia.

Case 9: Germany, 1454

Demo Final
THE PRINTING PRESS

"It is said that there, not far from the city of Mainz,
a certain John surnamed Gutenberg first of all men thought out the art of
printing."

Guillaume Fichet, scholar at the University of Paris, 1471


"It is said that there, not far from the city of Mainz, a certain John
surnamed Gutenberg first of all men thought out the art of printing."

    --Guillaume Fichet, scholar at the University of Paris, 1471

Demo Final
EARLY EXPERIMENTS

Before the second century, most books were written by hand on papyrus or
parchment. When the Chinese invented paper in 105 B.C.E., they began to
experiment with a crude form of block printing. They also worked with small
wooden blocks of individual characters, creatingthe first movable type.
Unfortunately, the Chinese language has thousands of characters, so movable type
was not practical and was soon abandoned.

Paper was introduced into Europe in the twelfth century. In the fourteenth
century, block-printing was sometimes used to make playing cards and religious
pictures. However, books and manuscripts were still painstakingly copied by
hand.

FUN FACT: The new material invented by the Chinese looked like papyrus and was
given a similar name--paper.
EARLY EXPERIMENTS

Before the second century, most books were written by hand on papyrus or
parchment. After the Chinese invented paper in 105 B.C.E., they began to
experiment with a crude form of block printing. By the sixth century they worked
with small wooden blocks of individual characters, creating the first movable
type. Unfortunately, the Chinese language has thousands of characters, so
movable type was not practical and was soon abandoned.

Paper was introduced into Europe in the twelfth century. In the fourteenth
century, block-printing was sometimes used to make playing cards and religious
pictures. However, books and manuscripts were still painstakingly copied by
hand.

FUN FACT: The new material invented by the Chinese looked like papyrus and was
later given a similar name--paper.

Minor wording changes.

Demo Final
MACHINE MADE

Johann Gutenberg was born in Mainz in Germany sometime between 1394 and 1399.
As a young man, he tried to design a mechanical printing press and began to
experiment with movable metal type. By 1450, a wealthy lawyer who knew about
Gutenberg's experiments lent him enough money to start a print shop.

In 1454, Gutenberg and his partners printed about two hundred copies of a
handsome Bible, the first book printed by the new printing press. Each page of
this Bible contained forty-two lines of type per page. Today, there only forty
copies of the forty-two line Gutenberg Bible exist.

FUN FACT: The first Gutenberg Bible is one of the most valuable books in the
world. Today, a copy in good condition is worth about $200,000.
MACHINE MADE

Johann Gutenberg was born in Mainz in Germany during the 1390s. Around the
age of forty, he began designing a mechanical printing press which used movable
metal type made with a special new alloy. By 1450, a wealthy financier who knew
about Gutenberg's experiments lent him enough money to start a print shop.

By 1455, Gutenberg and his partners had printed dozens of copies of a handsome
Bible, the first book printed by the new printing press. Each page of this Bible
contained forty-two lines of type per page. Today, only forty copies of the
forty-two line Gutenberg Bible still exist.

FUN FACT: The first Gutenberg Bible is one of the most valuable books in the
world. Today, a copy in good condition is worth about U.S.$200,000.
Demo Final
A UNIQUE TECHNIQUE

Gutenberg made many important improvements to the printing process. First, he
needed a device that would apply smooth, even pressure to each sheet of paper,
creating sharp images. To achieve this, he modified a winepress, adding a platen
that moved up and down against the paper by means of a screw.


Second, Gutenberg wanted to make metal type that could be reused. He
experimented with different materials and developed a metal alloy that was both
sturdy and easy to cast. Third, he invented a thick, fast-drying ink made from a
mixture of linseed oil and lampblack, a sooty substance from oil lamps. These
printing techniques worked so well that few improvements were made in the next
four hundred years.

FUN FACT: Gutenberg discovered that a mixture of 80 percent lead, 5 percent tin,
and 15 percent antimony produced the best metal for the typeface.

A UNIQUE TECHNIQUE

Gutenberg made many important improvements to the printing process. First, he
needed a device that would apply smooth, even pressure to each sheet of paper,
creating sharp images. To achieve this, he modified a binding press or a
winepress, adding a platen that moved up and down against the paper by means of
a screw.

Second, Gutenberg wanted to make metal type that could be reused. He
experimented with different materials and developed a metal alloy that was both
sturdy and easy to cast. Third, he invented a thick, fast-drying ink made from a
mixture of linseed oil and lampblack, a sooty substance from oil lamps. These
printing techniques worked so well that few improvements were made in the next
four hundred years.

FUN FACT: Gutenberg discovered that a mixture of about 80 percent lead, 5
percent tin, and 15 percent antimony produced the best metal for the typeface.
Lead remained the major metal in printing type until the modern era.

An extra line about lead's importance in printing was added, probably to make it more clear that it's the metal referred to in the Carmen Note.

Demo Final
A BURNING FOR LEARNING

Hand-written books were expensive to create and copy. As a result of
Gutenberg's new methods, large numbers of books and pamphlets could be produced
quickly and inexpensively. By 1500, more than 6000 separate works had been
printed, and knowledge began to spread as never before.

Because more books were available, more and more people learned to read. Works
on scientific subjects, such as botany, geography, astronomy, medicine, and
mathematics were published, and scholars all over the world could learn from
their peers and build on one another's work. For these reasons, some historians
believe that Gutenberg's printing press was the most important invention of the
last one thousand years.

FUN FACT: Today more than 50,000 different books are printed each year in the
United States alone.


A BURNING FOR LEARNING

Handwritten books were expensive to create and copy. As a result of
Gutenberg's new methods, large numbers of books and pamphlets could be produced
quickly and inexpensively. By 1500, thousands of separate works had been
printed, and knowledge began to spread as never before.

Because more books were available, more and more people learned to read. Works
on scientific subjects, such as botany, geography, astronomy, medicine, and
mathematics were published, and scholars all over the world could learn from
their peers and build on one another's work. For these reasons, some historians
believe that Gutenberg's printing press was the most important invention of the
last one thousand years.

FUN FACT: Today, about 50,000 different books are printed each year in the
United States alone.

(map on next page)

Case 10: Inca Empire, 1460

Demo Final
THE INCAN EMPIRE

"They learnt about the times and seasons of the year and could record and read
history from the knots."

Garcilaso de la Vega, a Peruvian writer, describing the Inca schools


"They learnt about the times and seasons of the year and could record and
read history from the knots."

    --Garcilaso de la Vega, a Peruvian writer, describing Inca schools
Demo Final
A GREAT INCA CONQUEROR

At the height of their power, the Inca Indians controlled a territory equal
in size to modern day Brazil, Peru, and Ecuador combined. The Incan Empire
expanded rapidly during the reign of Pachacuti, who ruled from 1440-1470 C.E.
Pachacuti is considered by some historians to be one of the greatest conquerors
and rulers of all time.



When Pachacuti was young, the Incan capital of Cuzco was attacked by Chanca
warriors. The courageous Pachacuti rallied support from his allies and
successfully defended the city from attack. After the Chanca defeat, Pachacuti
was crowned as the Inca ruler.

FUN FACT: Pachacuti adopted Thunder, the Inca God of weather, as his personal
guardian spirit.

A GREAT INCA CONQUEROR
 
At the height of their power, the Inca people controlled a territory
extending through parts of modern day Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and
Chile.

The Inca Empire expanded rapidly during the reign of Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui,
who ruled from 1438--1471 C.E. Pachacuti is considered by some historians to be
one of the greatest conquerors and rulers of all time.

When Pachacuti was young, the Inca capital of Cuzco was attacked by Chanca
warriors. The courageous Pachacuti rallied support from his allies and
successfully defended the city from attack. After the Chanca defeat, Pachacuti
gained the crown of the Inca (the ruler).

FUN FACT: Viracocha, the Inca Creator God, appeared to Pachacuti in a dream
while the Inca were besieged by the Chanca. Thereafter, Viracocha was considered
Pachacuti's divine protector.

Typically touch-ups and clarifications. The odd choice of "Thunder" as the "Inca God of weather" was smoothed out.

Demo Final
LOTS OF KNOTS

The Incas had no form of writing, but they kept records using knotted cords,
called quipus. By means of quipus, the Incas kept track of crop production and
were able to move surplus food to areas where it was needed. Inca farmers used
llamas as beasts of burden and grew cassava, sweet potatoes, and Indian corn.


The Incas were skilled weavers and potters. They were able to construct roads,
irrigation systems, and terraces for farming even though they had simple tools,
few measuring devices, and no vehicles with wheels to carry supplies. Trees were
scarce in the high mountains so many items, such as weapons and buildings, were
made of stone.



FUN FACT: The Incas used silver and gold to make exquisite dishes, cups, and
goblets. Silver was called "tears of the moon" and gold was called "sweat of the
sun."
LOTS OF KNOTS

The Inca had no form of writing, but they kept records using knotted cords,
called "quipus." By means of quipus, the Inca kept track of crop production and
were able to move surplus food to areas where it was needed. Inca farmers used
llamas as beasts of burden and grew corn (maize), potatoes, and many other
crops.

The Inca were skilled weavers and potters, as well as accomplished engineers.
Possessing only simple tools, and lacking wheeled transport vehicles, the Inca
nevertheless constructed highly advanced roads, farming terraces, and irrigation
systems. Their cities, like Cuzco, featured finely crafted stone buildings. And
the mountainous countryside, where the majority of the Inca population lived,
was connected by an extensive foot highway system--which greatly reduced travel
times.

FUN FACT: The Inca used silver and gold to make exquisite dishes, cups, and
goblets. Silver was called "tears of the moon" and gold was called "sweat of the
sun."

Details, details, details.

Demo Final
NAVEL POWER

Cuzco was the capital of the Incan Empire from its rise in the fourteenth
century until the Spanish conquest in 1533. Located in a valley of the Andes,
Cuzco is more than two miles above sea level.

The name Cuzco means "navel," and the city was considered the hub of Inca
civilization. The center of the city was laid out in the shape of a puma, and a
network of roads radiated from Cuzco to the rest of the empire. In the early
sixteenth century, outlying regions paid their taxes with gold and silver,
filling the temples and palaces of Cuzco with the wealth of the kingdom.

FUN FACT: After centuries of wear and tear, a few Inca buildings remain standing
in modern day Cuzco. The stones of these buildings fit together tightly like
pieces of a jigsaw puzzle.
NAVEL POWER

Cuzco was the capital of the Inca Empire from its rise in the fourteenth
century or earlier, until the Spanish conquest in 1532. Located in a valley of
the Andes, Cuzco is more than two miles above sea level.

The name Cuzco means "navel," and the city was considered the hub of Inca
civilization. The center of the city was laid out in the shape of a puma, and a
network of roads radiated from Cuzco to the rest of the empire. In the early
sixteenth century, the temples and palaces of Cuzco were covered in gold and
silver, reflecting the enormous wealth of the kingdom.

FUN FACT: After centuries of wear and tear, many Inca walls and foundations
remain standing in modern-day Cuzco. The stones of these buildings fit together
tightly like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle.
Demo Final
END OF AN EMPIRE

In 1533, the Spanish conqueror, Francisco Pizzaro, arrived in Peru with a
force of 180 men with firearms and captured the Inca ruler, Atahualpa. Pizzaro
demanded gold and silver, but after the ransom was paid, Atahualpa was killed
anyway. One year later, Cuzco was conquered and the Incan civilization
destroyed.

The accomplishments of the Incas were remarkable in light of the fact that they
had no system of writing, no horses, and no vehicles with wheels. They were able
to administer a huge empire and maintain accurate records of troops and supplies
with quipus. The Incas also produced many great works of art and architecture
and had a rich body of folklore and music.

FUN FACT: The Incas became adapted to hard labor in the thin mountain air. They
could work in mines and move heavy stones at an altitude where lowland people
have trouble breathing.


END OF AN EMPIRE

In 1532, the Spanish conqueror, Francisco Pizzaro, arrived in Peru with a
force of 180 men with firearms and captured the ruling Inca--Atahualpa. Pizzaro
demanded gold and silver, but after the ransom was paid, Atahualpa was killed
anyway. One year later, Cuzco was captured and the Inca civilization destroyed.


The accomplishments of the Inca were remarkable in light of the fact that they
had no system of writing, no horses, and no vehicles with wheels. They were able
to administer a huge empire and maintain accurate records of troops and supplies
with quipus. The Inca also produced many great works of art and architecture and
had a rich body of folklore and music.

FUN FACT: The Inca were physically adapted to a rigorous lifestyle in thin
mountain air. They could move heavy stones, cultivate crops, and construct roads
and buildings at an altitude where lowland people have trouble breathing.

(map on next page)

Case 11: Spain, 1493

Demo Final
15th Century Spain -- An Age of Discovery



"I have always read that the world, both land and water, was spherical...."

    --Letter from Columbus to Ferdinand and Isabella on the Third Voyage,
    October 18, 1498

Heading -> quote.

Demo Final
The Many Discoverers of America

Christopher Columbus, who landed in the Caribbean Islands in 1492, is often
credited with "discovering" the American continent. But much evidence exists
indicating that Captain Columbus was only one in a long line of explorers to
stumble onto this "New World." Norse sagas written around 1000 CE indicate that
Vikings explorers reached the lands of North America almost 500 years before
Columbus. Sculptures carved in Central America around 700 BCE feature heads with
African features --indicating that African explorers (possibly from Mali) may
have set foot on New World soil. That's over 2000 years before Columbus! When
Columbus returned with word of his "new" discovery, it brought him fame which
still lasts today. But it is interesting to think of the many silent explorers
who blazed a trail ahead of him.
THE MANY DISCOVERERS OF AMERICA

Christopher Columbus, who landed in the Caribbean Islands in 1492, is often
credited with "discovering" the American continent. But evidence exists
indicating that Captain Columbus may not have been the first explorer to stumble
onto this "New World." Icelandic sagas written around 1000 C.E. indicate that
Viking explorers reached the lands of North America almost 500 years before
Columbus. Other evidence argues for the possibility of early visits by the
Polynesians, and perhaps even Basque and African explorers.

When Columbus returned with word of his "discovery," it brought him fame which
continues today. But it is interesting to think of the many silent explorers who
may have blazed a trail ahead of him.

Whoever wrote this case's Chronopedia draft apparently wasn't aware that it was okay to use line breaks within a section, resulting in some very nasty paragraphs that were split up for the final version.

Demo Final
Splitting up a "New World"

When Columbus returned to Spain with tidings of his discovery, Spain and
Portugal were very excited. Both wanted a piece of the pie--a new world full of
raw resources, like gold! Although Spain had paid for Columbus' voyage, Portugal
tried to make a claim to the discovery. .Unfortunately, neither country paid
much attention to the fact that the Americas were already occupied by native
peoples, who had lived there for centuries. The two countries disputed how to
split up the newly found land. Eventually the Pope himself had to settle the
matter, by drawing a line down a map. This explains why some South American
countries today speak Spanish, while others speak Portuguese.



SPLITTING UP A "NEW" WORLD

When Columbus returned to Spain with tidings of his discovery, Spain and
Portugal were very excited. Both wanted a piece of the pie--a new world full of
raw resources, like gold! Although Spain had paid for Columbus' voyage, Portugal
tried to make a claim to the discovery.

Unfortunately, neither country paid much attention to the fact that the Americas
were already occupied by native peoples, who had lived there for centuries.

Spain and Portugal disputed how to split up the newly found land of the New
World. Eventually, the Pope himself had to settle the matter, by drawing a line
down a map. This explains why some South American countries today speak Spanish,
while others speak Portuguese. 
Demo Final
They Knew it was Round

Map-makers in the time of Columbus knew that the world was round, but they had
an incomplete picture of the continents on this round world. Most drew Japan and
China directly across the ocean from Europe, with nothing in between but a huge
expanse of water. Little did they know that two entire continents--North and
South America--blocked the way! This explains why no European maps of the day
showed the "New World" --because no one yet knew that the Americas existed! When
Columbus landed in the Americas, near present day Cuba, he was convinced that he
had found the Chinese islands called the "West Indies," so he called the native
people living there "Indians." It took many years for Europeans to realize that
this was not China, but an entirely new land.

THEY KNEW IT WAS ROUND

Mapmakers in the time of Columbus knew that the world was round, but they had
an incomplete picture of the continents on this round world. Most drew Japan and
China directly across the ocean from Europe, with nothing in between but a huge
expanse of water. Little did they know that two entire continents--North and
South America--blocked the way! This explains why no European maps of the day
showed the "New World" -- because no one yet knew that the Americas existed!

When Columbus landed in the Americas, near present-day Cuba, he was convinced
that he had found the Chinese islands called the "Indies," so he called the
native people living there "Indians." It took some time for Europeans to realize
that this was not China, but an entirely new land.
Demo Final
Making Good Use of Old Inventions

Columbus might not have reached the Americas without putting some old inventions
to new use. For instance, the magnetic compass had been around for centuries,
but it was only in Columbus' day that compasses were first used to help navigate
ships. Similarly, the triangular or "lateen" sail was not new, but Columbus'
ships were some of the first to use square and lateen sails together--making it
possible to sail forward no matter what the wind direction. Finally, when
Columbus reached the West Indies, he found that the people there slept on
comfortable hammocks strung between trees. European sailors at that time slept
on a ship's hard wooden deck. So Columbus and his sailors tried using hammocks
on board their ships, and found swaying in the air much better than shivering on
the floor. The U.S. Navy still used hammocks during World War I--over 400 years
later!









MAKING USE OF OLD INVENTIONS

Columbus might not have reached the Americas without putting some old
inventions to good use.

For instance, the magnetic compass, introduced to western ships as early as the
twelfth century, probably helped Columbus navigate during his 1492 voyage.

Similarly, two established types of sails--lateen and square--helped speed
Columbus on his journey across the dangerous Atlantic. Spanish caravel ships,
like Columbus' "Nina" and "Pinta," used lateen and square sails in combination
to allow for sailing in a variety of wind conditions, at an impressive pace.

Finally, when Columbus reached the West Indies, he was intrigued by a local
invention--comfortable sleeping hammocks that could be strung between trees.
European sailors at that time slept on a ship's hard deck. So Columbus and his
sailors tried using hammocks on-board ship, and found swaying in the air much
better than shivering on the floor.

FUN FACT: The U.S. Navy continued to use hammocks during World War I--over 400
years after Columbus first brought them aboard ship.

(map on next page)

Case 12: Italy, 1505

HISTORY TEXT FOR CASE 12

Section 1 Heading

Section 1 Body.

Section 2 Heading

Section 2 Body.

Section 3 Heading

Section 3 Body.

Section 4 Heading

Section 4 Body.

Another not-yet-started entry.

Case 13: Aztec Empire, 1519

Demo Final
THE AZTECS

Some of our soldiers asked whether the things we saw were but a dream.

    -- A Spanish soldier on first seeing Tenochtitlan, captial of the Aztec
    Empire.


"Some of our soldiers asked whether the things we saw were but a dream."

    --A Spanish soldier on first seeing Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztec
    Empire.

Quotation marks added, and a space placed after the dash.

Demo Final
EMPIRE BUILDERS

In 1248, a nomadic tribe of Indians now called the Aztecs, settled in a
valley in central Mexico. But life was not easy for the newcomers. Much of the
best land was already occupied, and the Aztecs were forced to live on a marshy
island in Lake Texacoco.

For two centuries, the Aztecs drained the marshes and cut canals to build their
capital city, Tenochtitlan. Aztec rulers married princesses from neighboring
tribes and used force to expand their empire. The Aztecs were skilled city
planners, clever negotiators, and fierce fighters. Soon they controlled the
entire valley.


FUN FACT: Some of the stones from Tenochtitlan can still be found in the older
buildings of modern day Mexico City.
EMPIRE BUILDERS

In the thirteenth century, a nomadic tribe of people now called the Aztecs
settled in a valley in central Mexico. But life was not easy for the newcomers.
Much of the best land was already occupied by other tribes, so the Aztecs chose
to settle on a marshy island in Lake Texcoco.

For two centuries, the Aztecs drained the marshes and cut canals to build a
capital city, called Tenochtitlan. The new capital was completed in 1325, and
became the hub of a rapidly growing empire. To speed their expansion, Aztec
rulers often fought battles or arranged marriages with princesses from
neighboring tribes. Using their skills as city planners, clever negotiators, and
fierce fighters, the Aztecs soon controlled a wide territory.

FUN FACT: Some of the stones from Tenochtitlan can still be found in the older
buildings of modern-day Mexico City.
Demo Final
SOLAR POWER

The Aztecs worshipped many gods and goddesses. Temples were built and
festivals were held in each god's honor. The Aztecs used two calendars that
combined to create cycles of fifty-two years. One of the most important
festivals, the fire ceremony, was held at the end of each cycle and was intended
to prevent the destruction of the sun.






Sacrifices were an important feature of every festival. The Aztecs believed that
the sun was kept alive and "nurtured" by blood. In exchange for human and animal
sacrifices, the sun god and other gods would protect the people and help their
crops grow.

FUN FACT: The Aztecs believed that the eagle represented the life-giving sun
god. You can see the eagle on the Mexican flag today!
SACRED CALENDAR

The Aztecs worshipped their many gods and goddesses based on a sophisticated
calendar system, which influenced the building of temples and the timing of
religious festivals.

The Aztecs used two calendars--a solar calendar that lasted for 365 days, and a
ritual calendar of 260 days--that combined to create cycles of fifty-two years.

An important Aztec ceremony, called the New Fire Ceremony, was held at the end
of every fifty-two year cycle. During this event, all fires were allowed to die
out, and were then rekindled from a single new sacred fire.

Sacrifices were an important feature of every festival. The Aztecs believed that
the sun was kept alive and "nurtured" by blood. In exchange for human and animal
sacrifices, the sun god and other gods would protect the people and help their
crops grow.

FUN FACT: The Aztecs believed that the eagle was a symbol of the life-giving sun
god. You can see the eagle on the Mexican flag today!

Section name changed, and the first paragraph broken into a few smaller, more detailed paragraphs.

Demo Final
BEAN COUNTERS

The marketplace was the heart of the city. In Tenochtitlan, as many as sixty
thousand people gathered in an open plaza to shop and gossip. Sweet potatoes,
fish, cloth, copper axes, and gold jewelry were sold. Barbers cut hair in
stalls, doctors examined patients, and cooks served food to their customers.


The goods were arranged in an orderly way with vegetables, pottery, or cloth in
separate areas. The Aztecs did not use paper money or coins. They often bartered
goods or used cocoa beans to pay for their purchases.

FUN FACT: Cocoa beans were so important that some people tried to counterfeit
them by substituting dirt for the meat of the beans.

BEAN COUNTERS

The marketplace was the heart of the city. In Tenochtitlan, as many as sixty
thousand people gathered in an open plaza to shop and gossip. Sweet potatoes,
fish, cloth, copper tools, and gold jewelry were traded, and cooked foods of all
sorts were served. There is even evidence that doctors examined patients and
barbers cut hair at the marketplace.

The goods were arranged in an orderly way with vegetables, pottery, and cloth in
separate areas. The Aztecs did not use paper money or coins. They often bartered
goods or used cocoa beans to pay for their purchases.

FUN FACT: In Aztec society hot cocoa was a special drink, usually reserved for
the ruling classes. The Aztecs introduced this drink to the Spanish, who brought
it back to Europe.

Apparently the fun fact was not fun enough, or perhaps not historically grounded enough, to last to the final.

Demo Final
LAST AZTEC LEADER

Montezuma II, an able soldier and priest, became the ruler of the Aztecs in
1502. Little did he know that he would be the last leader of his people.


Montezuma built temples and other public buildings. But he also imposed heavy
taxes on the people to pay for his many luxuries. He established a private zoo
on the palace grounds that included jaguars, monkeys, wolves, and bears, as well
as a magnificent aviary.

But Montezuma's reign was cut short when Central Mexico was invaded by the
Spanish conqueror, Hernando Cortez, in 1519.

Montezuma was killed and Tenochtitlan reduced to rubble.




FUN FACT: Montezuma liked to patrol the streets of Tenochtitlan in disguise to
see if his people were obeying the laws.




MONTEZUMA II

Montezuma II became the ninth Aztec emperor in 1502, succeeding his uncle
Ahuitzotl. He is best remembered for his confrontation with the Spanish
conquistador Hernan Cortes.

During the reign of Montezuma many new temples and other public buildings were
built, and the first codices--records for administering the empire--were
introduced. Montezuma's private palace was a lavish affair, including libraries,
workshops, council halls, and even a private zoo and a magnificent bird aviary.

But Montezuma's reign was cut short when central Mexico was invaded by the
Spanish conqueror, Hernan Cortes, in 1519. Believing Cortes to be the Aztec god
named Quetzalcoatl, Montezuma welcomed Cortes into Tenochtitlan, but was soon
taken prisoner by the Spanish forces. Montezuma was killed while in captivity,
and the political stability of the city quickly disintegrated. War with the
Spanish and neighboring tribes ensued, and within a year Tenochtitlan was
captured and the Aztec Empire effectively destroyed.

NOT SO FUN FACT: The exact cause of Montezuma's death is not certain. Aztec
sources indicate that he was strangled by his Spanish captors, while Spanish
sources assert that Montezuma was killed by his own people, who had lost faith
in their captured leader.

(map on next page)

This section was pretty much redone for the final game, presumably so it would actually have some information in it.

Case 14: England, 1599

HISTORY TEXT FOR CASE 14

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Case 15: Colonial America, 1776

HISTORY TEXT FOR CASE 15

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Case 16: Northwest USA, 1805

HISTORY TEXT FOR CASE 16

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Case 17: Austria, 1808

HISTORY TEXT FOR CASE 17

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Nope.

Case 18: USA, 1879

Demo Final
THE MACHINE AGE

"Save the juice, save the juice. Switch off the lights when not in use."

    -- From a sign in Thomas Edison's New Jersey laboratory


"Save the juice, save the juice. Switch off the lights when not in use."

    --From a sign in Thomas Edison's New Jersey laboratory

Heading removed, space added after dash.

Demo Final
NEW DISCOVERIES

The nineteenth century was a time of rapid scientific advancement. In the
medical world, microbes were discovered, and this led to the development of
vaccines and improved medical techniques. On engineering fronts, Michael Faraday
in 1831 found a way to generate electricity. Inspired by a demonstration of the
electromagnet in 1832, Samuel Morse conceived of the telegraph machine.

Discoveries in chemistry helped people devise new fuels and new materials. In
1855, Henry Bessemer developed the first blast furnace, which could produce
inexpensive steel used to build strong bridges and skyscrapers. In 1869, the
invention of the first plastic, called Parkesine, ushered in the age of
disposable goods.

FUN FACT: The first tin cans, invented in the nineteenth century, needed to be
opened with a hammer and chisel.
NEW DISCOVERIES

The nineteenth century was a time of rapid scientific advancement. In the
medical world, renewed interest in microbes led to the development of vaccines
and improved medical techniques. On engineering fronts, Michael Faraday in 1831
found a way to generate electricity. Inspired by reports of the electromagnet in
1832, Samuel Morse conceived of the first telegraph machine.

Discoveries in chemistry helped people devise new fuels and new materials. In
1856, Henry Bessemer patented a new process of blasting air through molten iron
to produce inexpensive steel for bridges and skyscrapers. In 1855, the invention
of the first plastic, called Parkesine, ushered in the age of disposable goods.


FUN FACT: The first tin cans, invented in the nineteenth century, needed to be
opened with a hammer and chisel.
Demo Final
A BRILLIANT CAREER

The great nineteenth century American inventor, Thomas Alva Edison, was born
in Milan, Ohio in 1847. Edison had only three months of formal schooling.
Because his teachers believed he wasn't bright, his mother decided to educate
him at home. As a child, Edison worked as a newsboy, and at fifteen he became
the manager of a telegraph office.

Edison patented more than 1,000 inventions including the incandescent light
bulb, the phonograph, the motion-picture projector, the duplex telegraph, the
carbon telephone transmitter, and the alkaline storage battery.

FUN FACT: Edison is perhaps most famous for perfecting the phonograph, a
sound-based device. Ironically, owing to a childhood accident, Edison was almost
completely deaf, and could not fully enjoy his own invention.
A BRILLIANT CAREER

The great nineteenth century American inventor, Thomas Alva Edison, was born
in Milan, Ohio in 1847. Edison had only three months of formal schooling.
Because his teachers believed he wasn't bright, his mother decided to educate
him at home. As a child, Edison worked as a newsboy, and at sixteen he became an
apprentice in a telegraph office.

Edison patented more than 1,000 inventions including the incandescent light
bulb, the phonograph, the motion-picture projector, the duplex telegraph, the
carbon telephone transmitter, and the alkaline storage battery.

FUN FACT: Edison is perhaps most famous for perfecting the phonograph, a
sound-based device. Ironically, owing to childhood illness, Edison was almost
completely deaf, and could not fully enjoy his own invention.
Demo Final
THE WIZARD OF MENLO PARK

Edison created the first commercial research laboratory at Menlo Park, New
Jersey in 1876. Backed by leading financiers such as J.P. Morgan, Edison
established the Edison Electric Light Company. In 1880, J.P. Morgan's residence
was the first private home in the world to be illuminated with Edison's
incandescent light bulbs.Henry Ford admired Edison. As chief operating engineer
at the Detroit Edison Illuminating Company, he told Edison about his newly
built, gasoline powered "horseless carriage." Up to that time no one had
encouraged Ford. But when Edison heard about Ford's idea, he pounded his fist on
the table and said, "Keep at it!" Years later, Ford asked Edison to design a
special new alkaline battery which could start his Model-T automatically,
without hand cranking.FUN FACT: Henry Ford's first car weighed five hundred
pounds and could run at two speeds, ten or twenty miles per hour.





THE WIZARD OF MENLO PARK

Edison created the first commercial research laboratory at Menlo Park, New
Jersey in 1876. Backed by leading financiers such as J.P. Morgan, Edison
established the Edison Electric Light Company. In 1880, J.P. Morgan's residence
was the first private home in the world to be illuminated with Edison's
incandescent light bulbs.

Henry Ford admired Edison. As chief operating engineer at the Detroit Edison
Illuminating Company, he told Edison about his newly built, gasoline-powered
"horseless carriage." Up to that time no one had encouraged Ford. But when
Edison heard about Ford's idea, he pounded his fist on the table and said, "Keep
at it!"

Years later, Ford asked Edison to design a special new alkaline battery which
could start his Model-T automatically, without hand cranking.

FUN FACT: Henry Ford's first car weighed five hundred pounds and could run at
two speeds, ten or twenty miles per hour.

Someone forgot the paragraph breaks here. Ouch.

Demo Final
CREATURE COMFORTS

The many inventions from Edison's laboratory have greatly influenced modern
life. Some of his devices are still in commercial use, such as the carbon
buttons found inside telephone speakers and microphones. He discovered a new
type of energy that he called the "etheric force" -- the electromagnetic energy
today called radio waves--and this led to the first wireless telegraph.

To many people, Thomas Edison embodied the power of human ingenuity to solve
problems. His research centered on inventions that would add comfort to the
lives of ordinary people. Most Americans would find it impossible to go through
a day without using at least one device invented or inspired by Edison.





FUN FACT: In a tribute to Edison, electric lights all over the United States
were dimmed for one minute on October 21, 1931, the day of his funeral.


CREATURE COMFORTS

The many inventions from Edison's laboratory have greatly influenced modern
life. Some of his devices are still in commercial use, such as the carbon
buttons found inside telephone speakers and microphones. He discovered a new
type of energy that he called the "etheric force"--the electromagnetic energy
today called radio waves--and this led to the first wireless telegraph.

To many people, Thomas Edison embodied the power of human ingenuity to solve
problems. His research centered on inventions that would add comfort to the
lives of ordinary people. Most Americans would find it impossible to go through
a day without using at least one device invented or inspired by Edison.





NOT SO FUN FACT: In a tribute to Edison, electric lights all over the United
States were dimmed for one minute on October 21, 1931, the day of his funeral.

(map on next page)

Case 19: USSR, 1961

HISTORY TEXT FOR CASE 19

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Section 3 Heading

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Not here yet.

Case 20: ACME HQ, Present Day

HISTORY TEXT FOR CASE 20

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And nothing for the last case, either.